Scientific Bases

What is DHA (docosahexaenoic acid)?

DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) is a long-chain fatty acid, 22 carbons long, 6 double bonds, and is found mainly in fish, seafood, shellfish, fish oils and some types of algae.

Main Sources of DHA

DHA is mainly found in wild fish, crustaceans and algae.

Several types of fish and their derivatives are excellent sources, and can provide a good amount per serving ( 16 ).

Among these, we have:

  • horsetail

  • Salmon (ONLY wild ones).

  • Herring.

  • Sardines.

  • Caviar.
















































































































Yehuda S, Rabinovtz S, Carasso RL, Mostofsky DI. Essential fatty acids preparation improves Alzheimer's patients quality of life. Int J Neurosci. 1996 Nov;87(3-4):141-9.

Morris MC, Evans DA, Bienias JL, et al. Consumption of fish and omega-3 fatty acids and risk of incident Alzheimer disease. Arch Neurol. 2003 Jul;60(7):940-6.

Kalmijn S, Launer LJ, Ott A, Witteman JC, Hofman A, Breteler MM.

Dietary fat intake and the risk of dementia incident in the Rotterdam Study. Ann Neurol. 1997 Nov;42(5):776-82.

Soderberg M, Edlund C, Kristensson K, Dallner G. Fatty acid composition of brain phospholipids in

aging and in Alzheimer's disease. Lipids. 1991 Jun;26(6):421-5.

Prasad MR, Lovell MA, Yatin M, Dhillon H, Markesbery WR. Regional membrane phospholipid

in Alzheimer's disease. Neurochem Res. 1998 Jan;23(1):81-8.

Morris MC, Evans DA, Tangney CC, Bienias JL, Wilson RS. Fish consumption and cognitive decline with age in a

large community study. Arch Neurol.2005 Dec;62(12):1849-53.

Hashimoto M, Hossain S, Shimada T, et al. Docosahexaenoic acid provides protection from impairment of learning

ability in Alzheimer's disease model rats. J Neurochem. 2002 Jun;81(5):1084-91.

Gamoh S, Hashimoto M, Hossain S, Masumura S. Chronic administration of docosahexaenoic acid improves the performance

of radial arm maze task in aged rats.Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 2001 Apr;28(4):266-70.

Neuringer M, Connor WE. omega-3 fatty acids in the brain and retina: evidence for their essentiality. Nutr Rev. 1986 Sep;44(9):285-94.

Gamoh S, Hashimoto M, Sugioka K, et al. Chronic administration of docosahexaenoic acid improves reference memory-related learning ability in young rats. Neuroscience. 1999;93(1):237-41.

Reisbick S, Neuringer M, Hasnain R, Connor WE. Home cage behavior of rhesus monkeys with long-term deficiency of omega-3 fatty acids. Physiol Behav. 1994 Feb;55(2):231-9.

Enslen M, Milon H, Malnoe A. Effect of low intake of omega-3 fatty acids during development on brain phospholipid fatty acid composition and exploratory behavior in rats.Lipids. 1991 Mar;26(3):203-8.

Birch EE, Garfield S, Castaneda Y, et al. Visual acuity and cognitive outcomes up to 4 years of age in a double-blind, randomized trial of a long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid-supplemented infant formula. Early Hum Dev. 2007 May;83(5):279-84.

Willatts P, Forsyth JS, DiModugno MK, Varma S, Colvin M. Effect of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in infant formulas on problem solving at 10 months of age.Lancet. 1998 Aug 29;352(9129):688-91.

Cunnane SC, Williams SC, Bell JD, et al. Utilization of uniformly labeled 13C-polyunsaturated fatty acids in the synthesis of

long-chain fatty acids and cholesterol accumulating in the neonatal rat brain. J Neurochem. 1994 Jun;62(6):2429-36.

Crabtree JT, Gordon MJ, Campbell FM, Dutta-Roy AK. Differential distribution and metabolism of arachidonic acid

and docosahexaenoic acid by human placental choriocarcinoma (BeWo) cells. Mol Cell Biochem. 1998 Aug;185(1-2):191-8.

Crawford MA, Hassam AG, Stevens PA. Essential fatty acid requirements in pregnancy and lactation with special reference to brain development. Prog Lipid Res. 1981;20:31-40.

Ozias MK, Carlson SE, Levant B. Maternal parity and diet (omega-3) polyunsaturated fatty acid concentration influence accretion of brain phospholipid docosahexaenoic acid in developing rats. J Nutrition 2007 Jan;137(1):125-9.

Hoffman DR, Theuer RC, Castaneda YS, et al. Maturation of visual acuity is accelerated in breast-fed term infants fed baby food containing DHA-enriched egg yolk. J Nutrition 2004 Sep;134(9):2307-13.

Green P, Glozman S, Kamensky B, Yavin E. Developmental changes in rat brain membrane lipids and fatty acids. The preferential prenatal accumulation of docosahexaenoic acid. J Lipid Res. 1999 May;40(5):960-6.

McCann JC, Ames BN. Is docosahexaenoic acid, an omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid, required for development of normal brain function? An overview of evidence from cognitive and behavioral tests in humans and animals.

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Khedr EM, Farghaly WM, Amry S, Osman AA. Neural maturation of breastfed and formula-fed infants. Pediatric Minutes 2004 Jun;93(6):734-8.

Dijck-Brouwer DA, Hadders-Algra M, Bouwstra H, et al. Lower fetal status of docosahexaenoic acid, arachidonic acid and essential fatty acids is associated with less favorable neonatal neurological condition. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids.

2005 Jan;72(1):21-8.

Colombo J, Kannass KN, Shaddy DJ, et al. Maternal DHA and the development of attention in childhood and toddlerhood. Child Dev. 2004 Jul;75(4):1254-67.

Moriguchi T, Salem N, Jr. Recovery of brain docosahexaenoate leads to recovery of spatial task performance.

J Neurochem. 2003 Oct;87(2):297-309.

Homayoun P, Durand G, Pascal G, Bourre JM. Alteration in fatty acid composition of adult rat brain capillaries and choroid plexus induced by a deficient diet in omega-3 fatty acids: slow recovery after substitution with a nondeficient diet. J Neurochem. 1988 Jul;51(1):45-8.

Connor WE, Neuringer M, Lin DS. Dietary effects on brain fatty acid composition: the reversibility of omega-3 fatty acid deficiency and turnover of docosahexaenoic acid in the brain, erythrocytes, and plasma of rhesus monkeys. J Lipid Res. 1990 Feb;31(2):237-47.

Moriguchi T, Loewke J, Garrison M, Catalan JN, Salem N, Jr. Reversal of docosahexaenoic acid deficiency in the rat brain, retina, liver, and serum. J Lipid Res. 2001 Mar;42(3):419-27.

Anderson GJ. Developmental sensitivity of the brain to dietary omega-3 fatty acids. J Lipid Res. 1994 Jan;35(1):105-11.

Stillwell W, Shaikh SR, Zerouga M, Siddiqui R, Wassall SR. Docosahexaenoic acid affects cell signaling by altering lipid rafts. Reprod Nutr Dev. 2005 Sep;45(5):559-79.

Stillwell W, Wassall SR. Docosahexaenoic acid: membrane properties of a unique fatty acid. Chem Phys Lipids. 2003 Nov;126(1):1-27.

Stillwell W, Ehringer W, Jenski LJ. Docosahexaenoic acid increases permeability of lipid vesicles and tumor cells. Lipids. 1993 Feb;28(2):103-8.

Brown ER, Subbayah PV. Differential effects of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid on human skin fibroblasts.

Lipids. 1994 Dec;29(12):825-9.

Horrobin DF, Bennett CN. New gene targets related to schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders: enzymes, binding proteins and transport proteins involved in phospholipid and fatty acid metabolism. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 1999 Mar;60(3):141-67.

Horrobin DF. Interactions between lipid metabolism and schizophrenia: the biochemical changes which may have made us human. Lipids.

1999;34 SupplS255.

Xiao Y, Huang Y, Chen ZY. Distribution, depletion and recovery of docosahexaenoic acid are region-specific in rat brain.

Br J Nutr. 2005 Oct;94(4):544-50.

Litman BJ, Niu SL, Polozova A, Mitchell DC. The role of docosahexaenoic acid containing phospholipids in modulating G protein-coupled signaling

pathways: visual transduction. J Mol Neurosci. 2001 Apr;16(2-3):237-42.

Turner N, Else PL, Hulbert AJ. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) content of membranes determines molecular activity of the sodium pump: implications for disease states and metabolism. Naturwissenschaften. 2003 Nov;90(11):521-3.

Salem N, Jr., Litman B, Kim HY, Gawrisch K. Mechanisms of action of docosahexaenoic acid in the nervous system. Lipids.

2001 Sep;36(9):945-59.

Chalon S, ion-Vancassel S, Belzung C, et al. Dietary fish oil affects monoaminergic neurotransmission and behavior in rats.

J Nutrition 1998 Dec;128(12):2512-9.

Sergeeva M, Strokin M, Reiser G. Regulation of intracellular calcium levels by polyunsaturated fatty acids, arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid,

in astrocytes: possible involvement of phospholipase A2. Reprod Nutr Dev. 2005 Sep;45(5):633-46.

Kim HY, Akbar M, Lau A, Edsall L. Inhibition of neuronal apoptosis by docosahexaenoic acid (22:6omega-3). Role of phosphatidylserine in antiapoptotic effect.

J Biol Chem. 2000 Nov 10;275(45):35215-23.

Delwaide PJ, Gyselynck-Mambourg AM, Hurlet A, Ylieff M. Double-blind randomized controlled study of phosphatidylserine in senile demented patients.

Neurol Scand Acta. 1986 Feb;73(2):136-40.

Zhao G, Etherton TD, Martin KR et al. Anti-inflammatory effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids in THP-1 cells.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun.2005 Oct 28;336(3):909-17.

McGahon BM, Martin DS, Horrobin DF, Lynch MA. Age-related changes in synaptic function: analysis of the effect of dietary supplementation

with omega-3 fatty acids.

Neuroscience. 1999;94(1):305-14.

Fujita S, Ikegaya Y, Nishikawa M, Nishiyama N, Matsuki N. Docosahexaenoic acid improves long-term potentiation attenuated by phospholipase

A(2) inhibitor in rat hippocampal slices. Br J Pharmacol. 2001 Apr;132(7):1417-22.

Kitajka K, Puskas LG, Zvara A, et al. The role of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in brain: modulation of rat brain gene expression by dietary

omega-3 fatty acids. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2002 Mar 5;99(5):2619-24.

Cao D, Xue R, Xu J, Liu Z. Effects of docosahexaenoic acid on survival and neuritis outgrowth of rat cortical neurons in primary cultures.

J Nutr Biochem. 2005 Sep;16(9):538-46.

de la Presa OS, Innis SM. Docosahexaenoic and arachidonic acid prevents the decrease in dopaminergic and serotoninergic neurotransmitters in frontal cortex caused by a linoleic and alpha-linolenic acid deficient diet in formula-fed piglets. J Nutrition 1999 Nov;129(11):2088-93.

Innis SM, de la Presa OS. Dietary fatty acid composition in pregnancy alters neurite membrane fatty acids and dopamine in newborn rat brain.

J Nutrition 2001 Jan;131(1):118-22.

Delion S, Chalon S, Guilloteau D, Besnard JC, Durand G. alpha-Linolenic acid dietary deficiency alters age-related changes of dopaminergic and serotoninergic neurotransmission in the rat frontal cortex. J Neurochem. 1996 Apr;66(4):1582-91.

Zimmer L, Vancassel S, Cantagrel S, et al. The dopamine mesocorticolimbic pathway is affected by deficiency in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids.

Am J Clin Nutr. 2002 Apr;75(4):662-7.

Mitchell DC, Niu SL, Litman BJ. Enhancement of G protein-coupled signaling by DHA phospholipids. Lipids. 2003 Apr;38(4):437-43.

Kim YK, Na KS, Shin KH, et al. Cytokine imbalance in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder.

Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2007 Jun 30;31(5):1044-53.

Kiecolt-Glaser JK, Belury MA, Porter K, et al. Depressive symptoms, omega-6:omega-3 fatty acids, and inflammation in older adults.

Psychosom Med. 2007 Apr;69(3):217-24.

Craddock D, Thomas A. Cytokines and late-life depression. Essent Psychopharmacol. 2006;7(1):42-52.

Spalletta G, Bossu P, Ciaramella A, et al. The etiology of poststroke depression: a review of the literature and a new hypothesis involving inflammatory cytokines. Mol Psychiatry. 2006 Nov;11(11):984-91.

Beilin B, Greenfeld K, Abiri N, et al. Anesthesiologists at work: an increase in pro-inflammatory and Th2 cytokine production, and alterations in proliferative immune responses. Anaesthesiol Scand Minutes. 2006 Nov;50(10):1223-8.

O'Brien SM, Scully P, Fitzgerald P, Scott LV, Dinan TG. Plasma cytokine profiles in depressed patients who fail to respond to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor therapy. J Psychiatr Res. 2007 Apr;41(3-4):326-31.

von KR, Hepp U, Kraemer B, et al. Evidence for low-grade systemic proinflammatory activity in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder.

J Psychiatr Res. 2007 Nov;41(9):744-52.

Levant B, Ozias MK, Carlson SE. Specific brain regions of female rats are differentially depleted of docosahexaenoic acid by reproductive activity and an (omega-3) fatty acid-deficient diet.J Nutr. 2007 Jan;137(1):130-4.

Kodas E, Galineau L, Bodard S, et al. Serotoninergic neurotransmission is affected by omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in the rat.

J Neurochem. 2004 May;89(3):695-702.

Kodas E, Vancassel S, Lejeune B, Guilloteau D, Chalon S. Reversibility of omega-3 fatty acid deficiency-induced changes in dopaminergic neurotransmission in rats: critical role of developmental stage. J Lipid Res. 2002 Aug;43(8):1209-19.

Hickie I, Naismith S, Ward PB, et al. Reduced hippocampal volumes and memory loss in patients with early- and late-onset depression.

Br J Psychiatry. 2005 Mar;186:197-202.

MacMaster FP, Kusumakar V. Hippocampal volume in early onset depression. BMC Med. 2004 Jan 29;22.

Freeman MP. Omega-3 fatty acids and perinatal depression: a review of the literature and recommendations for future research.

Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 2006 Oct;75(4-5):291-7.

Sontrop J, Campbell MK. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and depression: a review of the evidence and a methodological critique.

Prev Med. 2006 Jan;42(1):4-13.

De Vriese SR, Christophe AB, Maes M. Lowered serum omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) levels predict the occurrence of postpartum depression: evidence that lowered n-PUFAs are related to major depression. Life Sci. 2003 Nov 7;73(25):3181-7.

Huan M, Hamazaki K, Sun Y, et al. Suicide attempt and omega-3 fatty acid levels in red blood cells: a case control study in

China. Biol Psychiatry. 2004 Oct 1;56(7):490-6.

Terao T, Soya A. Cholesterol, essential fatty acids, and suicide. Pharmacopsychiatry. 2003 Mar;36(2):86-7.

Sublette ME, Hibbeln JR, Galfalvy H, Oquendo MA, Mann JJ. Omega-3 polyunsaturated essential fatty acid status as a

predictor of future suicide risk. Am J Psychiatry. 2006 Jun;163(6):1100-2.

Auer DP, Putz B, Kraft E, et al. Reduced glutamate in the anterior cingulate cortex in depression: an in vivo proton magnetic resonance

spectroscopy study. Biol Psychiatry. 2000 Feb 15;47(4):305-13.

McCullumsmith RE, Kristiansen LV, Beneyto M, et al. Decreased NR1, NR2A, and SAP102 transcript expression in the hippocampus in bipolar disorder. Brain Res. 2007 Jan 5;1127(1):108-18.

Noga JT, Hyde TM, Herman MM, et al. Glutamate receptors in the postmortem striatum of schizophrenic, suicide, and control brains.

Synapse. 1997 Nov;27(3):168-76.

McCullumsmith RE, Meador-Woodruff JH. Striatal excitatory amino acid transporter transcript expression in schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2002 Mar;26(3):368-75.

Mathew SJ, Keegan K, Smith L. Glutamate modulators and novel interventions for mood disorders. Rev Bras Psiquiatr. 2005 Sep;27(3):243-8.

Relton JK, Strijbos PJ, Cooper AL, Rothwell NJ. Dietary N-3 fatty acids inhibit ischaemic and excitotoxic brain damage in the rat. Brain Res Bull. 1993;32(3):223-6.

Hogyes E, Nyakas C, Kiliaan A, et al. Neuroprotective effect of developmental docosahexaenoic acid supplement against excitotoxic brain damage in infant rats. Neuroscience. 2003;119(4):999-1012.

Hamazaki T, Sawazaki S, Nagasawa T, et al. Administration of docosahexaenoic acid influences behavior and plasma catecholamine levels at times of psychological stress. Lipids. 1999;34 SupplS33-7.

Hamazaki T, Sawazaki S, Nagao Y, et al. Docosahexaenoic acid does not affect aggression of normal volunteers under nonstressful conditions.

A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Lipids. 1998 Jul;33(7):663-7.

Hamazaki T, Sawazaki S, Itomura M, et al. Effect of docosahexaenoic acid on hostility. World Rev Nutr Diet. 2001;88:47-52.

Itomura M, Hamazaki K, Sawazaki S, et al. The effect of fish oil on physical aggression in schoolchildren—a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. J Nutr Biochem. 2005 Mar;16(3):163-71.

Sawazaki S, Hamazaki T, Yazawa K, Kobayashi M. The effect of docosahexaenoic acid on plasma catecholamine concentrations and glucose tolerance during long-lasting psychological stress: a double-blind placebo-controlled study. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol.(Tokyo). 1999 Oct;45(5):655-65.

Hamilton L, Greiner R, Salem N Jr, Kim HY. n-3 fatty acid deficiency decreases phosphatidylserine accumulation selectively in neuronal tissues. Lipids. 2000 Aug;35(8):863-9.

Kelley DS, Siegel D, Vemuri M, Mackey BE. Docosahexaenoic acid supplementation improves fasting and postprandial lipid profiles in hypertriglyceridemic men. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Aug;86(No. 2):324-33

Aloe Vera / Aloe

Searching the available scientific literature, it is clear that Aloe stands out as a unique plant, with an incredible variety of health benefits. In a single plant we can find the following benefits, or aids that it provides to the organism with the purpose of:

  • Stop the growth of cancerous tumors.

  • Lower bad cholesterol levels.

  • Dissolving kidney stones and protecting against crystallization of oxalates present in coffee and some teas.

  • Alkalize the blood, which is especially useful in a world where you consume so much sugar and flour (acidifying substances).

  • Treat ulcers, irritable bowel syndrome, Crohn's disease and other digestive disorders.

  • Reduce high blood pressure by treating the cause, not just the symptoms.

  • Accelerate healing of physical and radioactive burns.

  • Replace dozens of first aid products, making the use of bandages and bactericidal sprays obsolete.

  • Help stop colon cancer by treating the intestines and lubricating the digestive tract like a balm.

  • Fix constipation.

  • Stabilize Blood Sugar Levels

  • Prevent and treat infections caused by Candida bacteria

  • Protect the liver against various diseases

  • Function as a natural isotonic, for electrolyte balance, making artificial isotonic drinks obsolete as well.

  • Increase cardiovascular performance and endurance.

  • Moisturize the skin and accelerate its regeneration in case of cuts or wounds of any kind.

  • Fluidize blood that may be too dense, thick, or sticky, making circulation much easier.

  • Increase blood oxygenation.

  • Decrease inflammatory processes and relieve arthritis pain.

  • Protect the body from oxidative stress.

All over the world, Brazil was the pioneer in banning the use of supplements that contain this plant, thus demonstrating the advance in the understanding and knowledge of our responsible authorities.

Fortunately, it is STILL possible to extract the benefits from the use of the plant itself, extracting the gel from its husk and preparing it in juices or shakes. The process itself is quick and easy, requiring only some care and attention. At the end of this article I present a practical guide with photos for homemade gel extraction.

You can easily find Aloe leaves at street markets (herb stalls), municipal markets and specialty stores.

What's in Aloe Vera Gel:

  • Water

  • 20 minerals

  • 12 vitamins

  • 18 amino acids

  • 200 active plant components (phytonutrients), including:

    • Enzymes

    • Terpenes (a phytonutrient that lowers blood sugar)

    • Glyconutrients and Glycoproteins

    • Polysaccharides, including:

      • Acemannan,

      • Mannose-6-phosphate

      • Polimannans

  • Phenolic glycosides such as Dihydrocoumarins

Antibacterial and antifungal activity of endodontic intracanal drugs.


Sterilization of the entire root system represents the main objective of every endodontist, given the control of microbial flora as a key point of each root canal treatment. The diversity of microorganisms found within the root canal and also the resistance of some bacterial species to intracanal drugs has led to a continuous development of new endodontic products. The present study focuses on comparing the antibacterial and antifungal properties of different endodontic products, two commercially available, an experimental plant-based extract and two control substances.


Disc diffusion assay was used to determine the antibacterial and antifungal properties of chlorhexidine, calcium hydroxide, a mixture extract between Arctium lappa root powder and Aloe barbadensis Miller gel, Amoxicillin with clavulanic acid and Fluconazole (as substances of control). Two of the most common microorganisms found in endodontic infections were chosen: Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212) and Candida albicans ATCC (10231).


All tested substances showed zones of inhibition around the discs, for Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans, including the experimental mixture extract of Arctium lappa root powder with Aloe vera gel.


The experimental mixture extract of Arctium lappa root powder and Aloe vera gel is capable of inhibiting very resistant microorganisms, such as Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans.

Antibacterial effect of Aloe Vera Gel against oral pathogens: an in vitro study.

Jain S 1 , Rathod N 2 , Nagi R 3 , Sur J 4 , Laheji A 5 , Gupta N 6 , Agrawal P 7 , Prasad S 8 .

Author information



Natural herbal remedies have shown promising antimicrobial properties and fewer side effects compared to synthetic antimicrobial therapy. Aloe Vera is a medicinal plant used for the management of various infections since ancient times, as it has anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and immunological properties.


The aim of the present study was to determine the antimicrobial and inhibitory activities of various concentrations of Aloe Vera Gel(AVG) against oral pathogenic bacteria.


Submanager calcium and periapical abscess and periodontal abscess aspiration were performed in 20 patients and the sample was transferred to thioglycolate broth, which was incubated in Mutgan Sanguis agar, blood agar and cultured in an anaerobic gas chamber. The colonies formed were further identified by grass staining methods and biochemical fermentation tests (IMViC). Each isolated colony of identified bacteria was grown separately in Muller-Hilton broth and incubated at 37 °C for 24 hours. The antimicrobial activity of AVG was tested by the disk diffusion method and the minimum inhibitory concentration was determined by the broth microdilution method.


Various stains and biochemical tests confirmed that the sample contained Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (A. actinomycetemcomitans), Clostridium bacilli (C. bacilli), Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) and Staphlococcus aureus (Staph. Aureus). AVG showed antibacterial properties at 100% and 50% concentration ('t' value = 7,504, p-value <0.001). At lower concentration, there was no effect against the bacteria. At 100% AVG concentration, the measured zone of inhibition was 6.9 µmm in A. actinomycetemcomitans, 6.3 mm in C. bacilli, 6.8 mm in S. mutanse 6.6 mm in Staph . aureus. Standard drugs were also used to compare the antibacterial property of AVG. The result showed that a higher concentration (100%, 50%) of AVG has a zone of inhibition comparable to Ofloxacin (5mcg) and Ciprofloxacin (30mcg).


AVG in higher concentration has shown antibacterial property and can be used as a promising adjunct to oral health care.


Turmeric, a root of the ginger family, is possibly one of Nature's most beneficial substances for human health. Several high-quality studies show that it delivers important results for the body and brain. Below you will see the ten evidence-proven health benefits of turmeric.



Curcumin sensitizes lymphoma cells to DNA damaging agents through regulation of Rad51-dependent homologous recombination.

Effect of turmeric on viability, ovarian folliculogenesis, fecundity, ovarian hormones and luteinizing hormone response in rabbits.

Curcumin in hepatobiliary disease: pharmacotherapeutic properties and emerging clinical applications.

Curcumin, an aromatic phytoextract of the turmeric (Curcumalonga) rhizome, has been used for centuries for a variety of purposes, not least it is medicinal. A growing body of evidence suggests that curcumin has a wide range of potentially therapeutic pharmacological properties, including anti-inflammatory, anti-fibrotic and anti-neoplastic effects, among others. The clinical applications of curcumin have been hampered by quality control concerns and limited oral bioavailability, although new formulations appear to have largely overcome these issues. Recent in vitro and in vivo studies have found that the cytoprotective and other biological activities of curcumin may play a role in a number of benign and malignant hepatobiliary conditions, including but not limited to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, cholestatic liver disease (eg, primary sclerosing cholangitis) and cholangiocarcinoma.


Antioxidative and antiatherogenic effects of flaxseed, α-tocopherol and their combination in diabetic hamsters fed a high-fat diet.


Oxidative stress has been shown to play a role in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus (DM) and its complications. In the present study, the effects of supplementation with dietary antioxidants, flaxseed and α-tocopherol were investigated in Syrian golden diabetic hamsters fed a high-fat diet. Thirty-five golden Syrian hamsters were randomly divided into a control group (C) and four diabetic groups (DM, DM + flax, DM + E and DM + Flax + E). Hamsters received four different diets for a period of 20 weeks, as follows: i) Groups C and DM received a diet high in fat (40% energy as fat), deficient in α-linolenic acid (ALA); ii) the flax DM +group received a high-fat diet enriched with flaxseed 15 g/100 g of foods, rich in ALA; iii) the DM + E group received a high-fat diet enriched with vitamin E, 40 mg a-tocopherol / 100 g food; and iv) DM + Flax+ Group E received a high-fat diet enriched with flaxseed and vitamin E. The results of the analysis of serum stress and oxidative stress suggested that the antiatherogenic effect of flaxseed, a-tocopherol and their combination added to a high-fat diet in diabetic hamsters was based primarily on its antioxidant role, demonstrated by decreased serum lipid peroxidation and increased liver glutathione content. Improvements in serum glucose and non-high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C) cholesterol levels were observed and may have contributed to the prevention of diabetic macroangiopathy evidenced on histopathological examination. The antioxidant effect of flaxseed was similar to that of α-tocopherol in diabetic hamsters fed a high-fat diet and combined supplementation did not appear to provide more benefit than flaxseed alone.


Flaxseed reverses atherosclerotic lesion formation and decreases lipoprotein (a) in ovarian hormone deficiency.

Campbell SC 1 , Bakhshalian N , Sadaat RL , Lerner MR , Lightfoot SA , Brackett D , Arjmandi BH .

Author information



The incidence of cardiovascular disease increases dramatically during menopause and postmenopausal women seek natural alternatives to hormone therapy. Flaxseed can slow the progression of atherosclerotic lesion formation; However, it is not known whether it can reverse the formation that has already taken place.


Seventy-two Syrian golden hamsters were randomly divided into six groups (n = 12), operated by sham (sham) or ovariectomized (ovx) and kept on the same diet for 120 days to allow the development of the atherosclerotic lesion. After this 120-day period, whole flaxseed was introduced into hamster diets in three of the groups: group 1 (sham + casein); group 2 (ovx + casein); group 3 (ovx + 7.5% linseed); group 4 (ovx + 15% linseed); group 5 (ovx + 22.5% linseed); and group 6 (ovx + 17β-estradiol). This diet was maintained for another 120 days. Lesion regression was examined histologically and serum was analyzed for total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, Apo A, Apo B and lipoprotein (a).


The results showed that 15% and 22.5% of flaxseed, compared to ovx animals, significantly reduced lipoprotein (a) (4.4 mg/dL [ovx] versus 2.15 mg/dL [15% of flaxseed] and 0.3 mg / dL [22.5% flaxseed]; P < 0.05) and Apo B (2.8 mg / dL [ovx] vs 2.4 mg / dL [15% flaxseed] and 2 .5 mg/dL [22.5% flaxseed]). Flax reduced the number of animals with aortic arch lesions by 67%.


All three doses of flax reduce the severity of lesion formation compared to ovx controls. These results support the effectiveness of flaxseed in reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease.



Egg contributes to weight loss as it is rich in protein.

This macronutrient slows down digestion causing the feeling of fullness to be prolonged.

Furthermore, as this digestive process takes longer, there is greater energy expenditure.

To improve, the egg has only 71 calories.

A few years ago, a survey by scientists at Louisiana State University (USA) showed that people who ate two eggs for breakfast lost 65% more weight than those who ate bread.

In addition, waist reduction was 34% greater and fat reduction, 16%.

However, it is important to emphasize that the egg diet will only contribute to weight loss if you rely on other healthy foods.

So, it is essential to invest in foods rich in fiber, vegetables, fruits, meats and reduce the consumption of processed foods, rich in sugar and saturated and trans fats.

Harms of sugar.

Apple Vinegar Really Slimming? Ask your doubts!

Glutathione: The Mother of All Antioxidants - Flávio Passos